The most important terms and their meaning.

ASTM International

ASTM D3950-4 is a standard for linear tensile strengths of strapping made from plastic and steel

Battery strapping tool

Battery operated strapping tool for bundling and sealing goods, securing pallets and strapping with PET strapping tape or PP strapping tape. Usually with friction-sealing. Most manufacturers, including LINDER, use long-life lithium-ion batteries with no memory effect. LINDER provides the service for strapping tools and machines in the in-house workshop.

blank

Type of corrosion protection for steel strapping. Blank, blued, black lacquered and zinc lacquered are available. Bright steel strapping is not referred to as a quality belt. It is only available in ribbon coils and has the least corrosion protection.

Blank strapping

Blank strapping, see “blank”, is blank steel strapping in coils without additional treatment for corrosion protection. It has a lightly greased surface, is cold-rolled and has a strength/breaking load of 650-760N/mm² and 3-4% breaking elongation. The blank steel strap has rounded edges and is suitable for use with hand tools.
Steel straps generally have extremely high tear strengths of up to 700 kg and are particularly suitable for heavy, sharp-edged or hot packaged goods.

Breaking elongation

If the tape is pulled from both ends, the percentage by which the tape can be stretched before it tears is indicated.

Breaking load

The breaking load of a strap is calculated by the width * Strap strength * ØNewton, e.g. 16*0.5*885=7080N. Therefore this figure indicates a strap, to which a weight of 708kg can be attached before it breaks.
The question many users ask is, “How many straps do I need to secure a pallet of 1000kg?” The answer is also dependent on whether the material is to be secured only in principle or be additionally secured from slipping. For example, with a blued strip of dimensions 19*0.6 mm and 885N/mm² of average tensile strength, the breaking load would be 10089N = 1.0089 To per strap. So this would require one strap. As a guideline, 20% should always be installed as a shock reserve, i.e. for a 1000kg load, 1200kg should be secured.

Bundle strap

See strapping

BGI

BGI Load securing on road vehicles

Blued

Type of corrosion protection for steel strapping. Available are blank, blued, black lacquered and zinc lacquered, the three latter forming the quality strapping group. Improved corrosion protection is achieved by a thin, adherent blue oxide layer and additional hot wax. This results in optimal tensioning of the packaging steel strap in the strapping machine.

CTU

CTU packing guidelines (guidelines for packing cargo other than bulk cargo into and out of transport units [CTUs = Container Transport Units] for transport with all modes of transport by sea and land, as of 1997, the new edition should have come out in 2014, but is not yet available)

DIN EN 13394:2001-07

In the DIN EN 13394:2001-07 standard, packaging specifications for non-metallic strapping is regulated; German version of EN 13394:2001

DIN EN 13246:2001-07

DIN EN 13246:2001-07 deals with packaging specifications for steel strapping; German version of EN 13246:2001.

DIN EN 13891:2003-09

In the DIN EN 13891:2003-09 standard, the selection of strapping and application is specified; German version of EN 13891:2003.

DIN EN 12195-1

The DIN EN 12195-1 (April 2004) in the EU (except for Germany, where VDI 2700 et seq. applies) contains calculation bases, e.g. acceleration coefficients, and calculation procedures for securing loads

DIN 10531

DIN 10531 (Securing loads by covering)

DIN EN 12195

DIN EN 12195 et seq. (calculation of lashing forces, lashing equipment)

DIN EN 12640

DIN EN 12640 (lashing points)

Embossed surface

An embossed PET tape has the better sealing properties due to a larger material surface. The more embossed the tape is, the cheaper/more economical it is because the material thickness (grammage) decreases, as does the breaking strength.

Flat strapping

Any form of strapping with a support surface of about 10cm of flat strapping material.

Grammage

The wider and thicker the tape the higher the grammage (material weight) and thus the higher the breaking strength.

High tensile strapping

High-tensile strapping is available as a ribbon coil and as a packing coil. Corrosion protection is available in blued, black painted and zinc coated. High-tensile steel strapping has a breaking load of 930-1030 N/mm² and a breaking elongation of approx. 13%.

Number of straps

The load weight divided by the system strength (plus a safety factor if desired, 20% recommended) gives the minimum number of straps required per pallet. For reasons of stability, the minimum number of straps/pallets should never be less than two.

Quality strapping

Quality strapping is available as a ribbon coil and as an oscillated coil. Corrosion protection is available in blued, black painted and zinc coated. Quality strapping has a breaking load of 750-960 N / mm² and a breaking elongation of approx. 6-8%.
Quality strapping is heat treated and blued. It has absolutely rounded edges, is waxed and is suitable for semi-automatic and fully automatic machines, as well as hand tools.
Lacquered quality strapping has improved corrosion protection. The application for black lacquer is approx. 3my, with zink lacquer approx. 6 my.
Steel straps generally have extremely high tear strengths of up to 700 kg and are particularly suitable for heavy, sharp-edged or hot packaged goods.

Smooth surface

A smooth PET strapping tape has a higher breaking strength because it has more g/m and less abrasion.

LIS Part I

LIS part I (load securing of general cargo, BAM training manual, October 2011)

Manual strapping device

In the case of manual strapping devices, the strapping is manually tensioned and – depending on the type of strapping – sealed with a sleeve or metal seal (or web closure). For PP and PET-tape there are, in addition to separate tensioners & pliers, so-called combi strapping devices, in which clamping and sealing functions are integrated in one device. Manual strapping devices are significantly cheaper than pneumatic or battery strapping devices and should be used whenever strapping is only required occasionally.

MSL (Maximum Securing Load)

In the case of sea transport, MSL (Maximum Securing Load) is important. This load is used for the one-way lashing load of 50% of the breaking strength. The MSL is specified in daN.

Mobile strapping

Mobile strapping refers to any form of flexible, locally applicable strapping. Mobile strapping is therefore mainly carried out with a manual or battery operated tool.

Oscillated coil

Type of steel strapping coil. Steel strapping comes in disk coils and pack coils. In the case of a pack coils, the dispenser is fitted from the front. It is chosen primarily for machine processing, as there are several meters on the reel. For manual processing, due to the heavy weight of the pack winding (50kg per pack), disc winding, with about 20kg, is preferred.

Pneumatic strapping tool

The use of pneumatic strapping tools with textile or lashing is always appropriate if, for example, very high and/or constant clamping forces have to be achieved due to safety regulations. In connection with PP and PET belts, pneumatic battery powered strapping devices are preferred whenever stationary strapping is required and/or particularly high clamping forces are required (e.g. when processing 25 or 32 mm PET belts).

PP strap, PP strapping

PP stands for polypropylene. Polypropylene is a thermoplastic produced by chain polymerization of propene. It belongs to the group of polyolefins and is partly crystalline and nonpolar.
A strapping band made of polypropylene is suitable for processing with fully automatic machines, battery strapping devices and manual hand strapping devices. PP tape is a cost-effective variant for tensile strengths up to 250 kg. PP strapping tape is well suited for use with packed goods whose volume changes (e.g. wood), elongation approx. 20%.

PET tape, PET strapping tape

PET is short for polyethylene terephthalate. Polyethylene terephthalate is a thermoplastic of the polyester family produced by polycondensation. PET has a wide range of applications and is used, among other things, for the production of plastic bottles (PET bottles), films and textile fibres. PET strapping tape is made from recycled PET bottles. Virgin raw material is only used when high breaking strengths or colored/transparent tapes are desired. The LINDER Premium PET tape is suitable for processing with fully automatic machines, battery strapping devices and manual hand strapping devices and is characterized by extremely high tear strengths up to 650 kg. In many cases, the PET strap can be used as an economical alternative to steel strapping. PET strapping is very resistant to splicing and has a low elongation. PET tape is available in sizes of 9-32 mm width and 0.4-1.34 mm thickness.

Tensile strength

The tensile strength of a strapping band is given in daN.

Round strapping

Round strapping is always the case when there is no or very little contact surface. In the case of round goods, no battery powered tools can be used for PP/PET straps or no hand-held hand tools for steel strips.

Disc coil

Type of steel strapping coil. Steel strapping comes in disk coils and pack coils. Disc coils are easier to handle due to their weight. Weight of disc coils depending on width:
13mm with 20kg to 32mm with 50kg, from 25mm to 32mm there are only disc coils. The dispenser is equipped with a top winder. Disc coils are predominantly selected for manual processing, as machine processing also includes the advantage of less frequent roll changing by using pack coils.

black lacquered

Type of corrosion protection for steel strapping. Blank, blued, black lacquered and zinc lacquered are available. Electrophoretic coating (galvanic paint application) ensures a uniform lacquer coating on the steel strap. This coating is highly adhesive and elastic. The lacquered steel strip is characterized by a high rust protection; especially at the edges. It also offers low abrasion for high reliability of equipment and machines.

Shock reserve

In strapping jargon, the intended over-securing of goods is referred to as a shock reserve. If a load of 1000 kg is to be secured, it is advised to add 20% as a shock reserve in order to be prepared for the most extreme case. This means you actually secure 1200kg.

Lacing

See strapping.

Intrinsic viscosity

The intrinsic viscosity (IV) of flakes has an important influence on strap properties, e.g. tensile strength, so it is important to use the correct raw material

System strength

System strength: when strapping with a strap and buckle is carried out. The system strength depends on the linear tensile strength of the strip and the sealing strength. Theoretical formula: Linear tensile strength x 2 – loss in the seal (the seal is the weakest link), i.e. system strength is approx. 2×80% – 20% loss in closure = 1.6 times linear breaking strength.

Stationary strapping

Stationary strapping refers to application strapping at a single site. Stationary strapping is applied with the use of machines or pneumatic tools.

Strapping tool

There are three different types of strapping straps for PP and PET strapping: manual strapping tools, pneumatic strapping tools, battery strapping tools.
In the case of manual strapping tools, the PP or PET strap is manually tensioned by means of a lever on the device and closed by means of a plastic or metal closure sleeve. You can select whether the tensioner and the tongs are used separately from each other or are used in combination with a strapping tool.
If the support surface for the pack to be strapped is too small, it is also possible to fall back on magazine devices or magazine strapping devices. These devices automatically re-insert a new closure sleeve after each strapping operation.
Pneumatic strapping tools are usually used less frequently because they are less flexible due to the air pressure connection. However, they can be used practically whenever the same clamping force is to be achieved, for frequent strapping or strapping that takes place in a humid environment.
For customers who must strap often and do not want to forego comfort, we recommend the use of battery powered strapping tools. These devices are light in weight, easy to handle and offer significant savings. For example, the user can dispense with locking seals when using battery strapping devices, such as the OR-T 250, the LSZP92, the LSZP96 or the BXT-19, and at the same time carry out significantly more strapping in a shorter time. Our battery strapping devices tension and weld at the push of a button and are of a very high durability.

Strapping

Strapping and securing packs is referred to as strapping with a closure strap, which is called a strapping band. Strapping is nowadays found in nearly every industry: whether in the metal industry, building materials, timber, drinks, furniture, logistics or consumer goods: At the end of the production process and before shipping. Packages are sealed with straps, bundled goods or the packaged goods are fixed on a pallet for transport. Especially in the area of ​​load securing, the issue of strapping plays an important role, whether container shipments, airfreight shipping or rail and road freight traffic. From sensitive and sensitive materials to complete machines and heavy concrete blocks, the strapping solution can be individually tailored to the respective application. The materials used depend entirely on the product. In most cases, steel, plastic or fabric strapping is used. The strapping is tensioned, closed and cut off by metal clamps, sleeves or welding techniques.
Depending on the size of the packs, the quality of the packaged goods and the required force, a variety of tools are used: manual strapping tools, pneumatic strapping tools, battery strapping tools, and strapping machines integrated into fully automatic conveying and packaging systems.

Environmental influences

If strapping is to be applied in humid, wet, and other adverse environments, manual tools are more suitable than battery-operated tools. The type of strapping must also be selected accordingly. Resistance to weathering and changes in the properties of the strip due to environmental factors are important decision criteria.

Closure seals

Closure seals are always selected based on the strapping tool and not for the strapping itself.

Closure strength

How much % of the linear tensile strength is achieved in a breaking load test in strapping with buckle. Minimum requirements are defined in standards such as EN ISO and ASTM.
The closure strength depends on the type of closure used:
– Seals (steel strapping, PP, PET strapping)
– Metal wire buckles (polyester strapping, woven tape)
– Metal wire clamps/hooks (single use straps, lashing)
– Seal-less: friction weld / hot weld (PP or PET strapping)

VDI 3968

VDI 3968 et seq. (Securing loads)

zinc coated

Type of corrosion protection for steel strapping. Blank, blued, black lacquered and zinc lacquered are available.